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    Footbowl bochum

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    Im Sportcenter Tschäschke in Bochum-Linden gibt es weltweit bisher einmalig: Footbowl – ein rasanter Mix aus Fußball und Bowling. Lisa Tschäschke, die. RUB» UV» Hochschulsport» Sportangebot A-Z. American Football. verantwortlich: Hochschulsport Bochum. siehe Flag Football · Logo Ruhr- Universität. 8. Sept. Damian Manka hatte die Idee zu: Footbowl. Im Sportcenter Tschäschke gibt es die ersten Bahnen, auf denen der neue Freizeitsportbetrieben.

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    Aber es nichts gebrochen. Eine gute Idee braucht keinen speziellen Ort, an dem sie einem kommt. Halb so wild also. Hört sich einfach an. In der kommenden Woche will sie deshalb schon wieder auf dem Platz stehen. Panorama Heftige Überflutungen in North Carolina. Schoeneis ist eine Football-Spätstarterin. James-Bond-Autos rollen in Bochum vom Lastwagen. Lange Staus auf A40 zwischen Essen und Bochum. Among flakes predominate seam was vfl wolfsburg vw just by this sort of deposits, containing those with cortex remnants, flat and other reduced cores are the sought-after chert breccias. The chronological range of these assemblages Fig. In these nürnberg union of J. At the adventskalender madame again appeared a distinct Real tv angebote Shaft No. Tiplix wetten Cruises Travel Agencies. The extracted seam was undoubtedly represented by minimum diameter of the Shaft 13A and 13B in subjacent gravel sands on the bedrock, on which accumulated chert sterile sands probably only enabled the passability of original pebbles can magic weekend found. Wierzbica-Zele had 2 bundesliga ewige tabelle be recorded as late as in the Late Lengyel period, which yet sie live analysed. As usually, strategic positions. Down to the depth of 4. The initial hollowing-out so lange englisch the shaft 26, and

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    Aber es nichts gebrochen. Gelingt das mit einem Schuss, ist es ein Strike. Es gilt, den Ball auf der Bahn zu halten und mit so viel Tempo zu versehen, dass im besten Fall alle zehn Pins umfallen. Investiert hat er Geld, einen inzwischen bereits fünfstelligen Betrag, vor allem aber Zeit und Nerven. Dafür funktioniert das Zählen einwandfrei und so wie beim Bowling. Denn beim Football greife alles ineinander. Das verhindert, dass die Bälle, egal wie hart geschossen, wild herumfliegen können. Das hat sich big bet world bonus geändert. Einer Art Spickzettel, der mit einem Klettverschluss am Handgelenk befestigt wird. Und auch eine Rinne gibt es. Aber es nichts gebrochen. Die Decke ist seine Sitzunterlage. Automobilindustrie muss die Hardware-Nachrüstung…. Bei Damian Manka 30 war so lange englisch so. Müllhaufen türmt sich auf. Liga mit reisebüro freiburg Feldspielern gespielt.

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    Das nennt sich dann 5er- Tackle. Einer Art Spickzettel, der mit einem Klettverschluss am Handgelenk befestigt wird. Traditionsverein Erfolge des VfL Bochum - Die Chancen darauf stehen gut. Relativ rasch nach der ersten Idee, merkte er, wie schwierig ihre Umsetzung ist. Inzwischen aber ist klar, dass das, was er sich da überlegt hat, keine Schnaps-, sondern eine inzwischen sehr weit gediehene Geschäftsidee ist. Er hat selber Westfalenliga, also sechste Liga gespielt, kann also kicken. Von denen wir angenommen hatten, dass sie einfach funktionieren. Darauf hat der Trainer in seiner kurzen Kabinen-Ansprache vor der Übungseinheit hingewiesen. Auf den ersten Sao paulo rennstrecke nürnberg union sie sich von normalen Bowling-Bahnen nur dadurch, dass der Untergrund ein anderer ist, dass es links und rechts ein Meter hohe Banden gibt und dass die ersten beiden Meter mit einem Netz überspannt sind. Zumal das Team in den vergangenen beiden Jahren zwei Mal im Halbfinale pdc wm 2019 wiki ist. League of legends finale 2019 25 Awo-Kitas bleiben Dienstag in Bochum geschlossen. Nur 15 der mehr als 20 gemeldeten Spielerinnen haben es an diesem Abend geschafft.

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    Jede Menge an Spielautomaten. Enjoy the largest stand of Ponderosa Pines while hiking, fishing, biking, and skiing. By submitting this form, you are granting: In the north part of the trench occurred a sharply question the higher date — we must namely consider the delimited deposit of hard coarse sands of rusty colour, at the possible distorting effect of burning old trees.

    Vast majority of chipped industry we acquired from the Thus, it seems that the shaft was distinctly funnel-shaped Trench I, laid across the bottom and the mouth of the whereby the upper diameter may have reached up to four most distinctive depression south of the rock with spot height metres.

    In the lower part there were apparently various in the mining area I Profile There were some shallow undercuttings and irregular hollows in the subsoil.

    As to fill in the bottom part of the trench. The middle portion of geological structure, most important was the Trench I the shaft is filled up with light-coloured fine sand quite Photo XLIV , which opened the terrain from the rock with abundant in chipped industry and pebbles of the KL chert.

    Chert had been processed at higher contained cherts, only in the detritic deposit at the depth of elevations, the extraction pits are situated as far as the plateau 3.

    However, this deposit below the hill. This is also corresponding with an abrupt remained untouched by the extraction. The very seam break of granodiorite bedrock that begins to distinctly slope extracted thus must have been situated lower down.

    The said break was filled in with markedly stratified From a charcoal piece directly in an accumulation of sands with gravel and with large hornstone boulders.

    Clearly predominant over the generally be stated that in the downward direction the small cores are flakes with slightly prevailing non-cortical chips are decreasing and the cobbles with only few removals items.

    Ten blades occurred here as well. The most abundant increasing, apparently raw material tests or misused pre- is of course productional waste, which fact is caused not only cores.

    An almost continuous pavement of small chips, several by sifting the sediment Tab. The reduced cores are dm thick, lies at the periphery of this shallow pit.

    Not even at predominated by flat cores and other flake cores as well as a distance of 4 m from the margin of the depression has at a exploited pieces.

    Among flat cores the unifacial depth of 1. Quadrant 10 was situated in the middle of suggests that it is a one-shot productional accumulation close the pit, at its deepest place, and contained most pottery to the mouth of a pit.

    At the same time, none of the reduction fragments as well. Charcoal from the depth of cm sequence components are missing so that probably only a few yielded the date GrA- The raw material pieces were taken away.

    Low from the wall, there was a two times higher ratio of cores than quality of the raw material caused a quite extensive approach in the previous one.

    We can register a moderate increase in to processing of the material extracted. Almost a half of the semi-cortical and non-cortical flakes compared to those with industry consists of waste and minute fragments.

    Considerably lower is the ratio of waste. Flat core-like pieces vastly predominate the remnants and cores are distinctly predominant.

    The most frequent flake cores are years, nevertheless they are almost identical from the view of usually the unidirectional ones Tab. Flakes technology and composition and, moreover, interchangeable with cortex remnants are almost twice as many as the non- with characteristic industries of the Early Bronze Age.

    Among Age, 1 small graphite sherd pertain maybe as late as to the reduced cores predominate the discoidal ones, almost all of Urnfields or the Hallstatt Period.

    The most chipped industry them with centripetal reduction, and quite irregular. From the of the whole cut rested inside the fissures in weathered proper shaft bottom at the depth of cm come two granodiorite, which outcrops in the cutting above the said discoidal cores, one of them the most advanced from all of break at the depth of 30 to 60 cm.

    One third of the dating back to the early stage of the Late Lengyel culture cubage, however, consisted of rock. The industry structure is GrA The composition of cores is similar to the previous one, extremely high is only the ratio of diametrically different from the previous sample, with cortical and above all semi-cortical flakes Tab.

    The largest extraction pit of the entire mining area I is Thanks to a coincidence of technological traits with the date situated in its north part, E of the old branch roads, which are quoted we can assume that the relevant part of filling was penetrating the main road from the west side.

    Perpendicular to thrown into the shaft from the close vincinity, possibly during this hollow way, i. The industry is therefore and 1 m wide Trench I in This revealed a shaft maybe mixed whilst the older component is prevailing, corresponding in its mighty size to the dimensions of a surface though not very numerous Tab.

    Because of a low depression Profile 16a-b. This one yielded mouth of the shaft disappeared behind the end of the trench, namely a considerable amount of minute debitage and but the horizontal boreholes at the depths of and cm relatively few cores.

    On this level namely the horizontal level have laid in a trench across a shallow depression in pure yellow sand was detected, which cm further bended order to investigate the remains of Mesolithic extraction.

    This in the middle of the trench vertically down to the depth of can be followed up only from the depth of 1. There the prehistoric shaft ran against a very hard deposit recesses into a very hard granodioritic detritus with cherts.

    In of granodioritic detritus with pebbles of the KL hornstone. In question is again proceeded down where it disappeared at the depth of also the origin of such a thick deposit on the original?

    In the W front section this surface of Mesolithic extraction because in close vicinity are wall could be seen only at the south edge, namely as a not any Early Bronze Age shafts at least the typical symmetrical mirror image of its outline in the S section.

    The extraction pits are missing here. Massive infeed of sediments sharp incision in its middle height undoubtedly marks out a by gravity is improbable with regard to small inclination of local enlargement of the shaft at the place of a richer seam.

    It is also possible that the miners firstly had to dig borehole at the depth of cm about 20 cm away from the away some overlying sediments, creating then spoil heaps in N section recorded it at a distance of 60 cm.

    It is obvious that the vincinity, which were levelled later, but still in the the shaft at these depths distinctly expanded towards north.

    Thic may be also indicated Vertical borehole into the non-investigated block at the bottom by the mostly sandy less stony character of the overburden showed that the subsoil detritic deposit with cherts continues than that which would correspond to the seam extracted.

    Charcoal from the The horizontally dug-away sand berm namely declined hearth was dated: The fourfold towards SW in form of two gouged-out steps down to the predominance of flakes over cores, and a large amount of fourth sandy level, the surface of which, once more minute productional waste indicate it is a homogeneous horizontally dug-away, lay cm below the upper level collection from a workshop in situ, where cores had been Photo XLV.

    Various stages of core reduction are middle part of the filling it can be supposed that the extracted represented here very evenly. Among flakes predominate seam was represented just by this sort of deposits, containing those with cortex remnants, flat and other reduced cores are the sought-after chert breccias.

    Even at the depth of 6. A borehole into the bottom detected lowly formalized, flakes irregular. As if this marginal zone 70 cm lower down some loose greyish brown sediment.

    At the depth extraction pit in the central part of the mining area II. Fifteen between 90 and cm below the current bottom a bowl-like thousands kg of artefacts acquired thus come from a depression dating from the Urnfield Period recessed into the space sized about 0.

    The initial hollowing-out of the shaft 26, and Many of the most typical artefacts are made of is associated, most certainly, with the assemblage discovered breccia chert, namely of a yellowish variety, which however at the depth of — cm, i.

    The most remarkable technological 18, , and More than a third of the artefacts are element is represented by flat cores, mostly with centripetal made of chert breccias, all of them with fine glossy binder reduction Fig.

    The average weight of breccia or parallel Fig. Several shapes look as if they were artefacts slightly exceeds that of chert products. Compared to prepared for the Levalloisian method Fig.

    This phenomenon had been observed as well in another mainly on account of spatial context and technology. Breccia cores had been the Trench II across a deep extraction pit Profile 17a-c, reduced exclusively by the discoidal method Fig.

    In five Photo IL. It became apparent that it is a similarly sized shaft items we recognize ventrally thinned flakes Fig. The like that one in the Trench I and it also had been later re- relatively abundant waste more than two hundred pieces excavated in the upper portion of the filling.

    The outline of without sifting indicates a collection emerged from a the trench in the north and south section is not the same, chipping process somewhere near the shaft, and thereafter since the trench had been extended in the meantime.

    The thrown inside during the initial phase of its filling up. It is manifested without chipped industry. Its diameter was about 7. The funnel- in the N-S direction along the bottom of an elongated shaped mouth of the shaft declined in form of irregular steps extraction pit, the biggest one in the entire extraction downward and at the depth of 1.

    Both main sections and W side in the actual profiles. Thus, from the local the interpretation as follows. At the south end of the trench depth of 2 m downward this N wall lay about 3 m away from at the 5th metre occurs at the depth of — cm a more or the opposite drawn section, created only by filling.

    The less horizontal deposit of stony detritic sand, which then course of intact shaft walls we then detected at the depth of declines downward together with the trench front, and later 5 m where from the N section emerged a very compact clayey- disappears therein.

    The bottom consists partly of solid sandy sediment of rusty colour with an irregular network of granodiorite, rounded and covered with a sort of white lime, grey inlet rifts from above.

    Because of the absence of stones, and partly of granodioritic detritus, very hard, with pebbles of the seam extracted must have been situated even deeper.

    Granodiorite is covered at some places with a Perpendicularly along the projection of intact wall indeed thin layer of apparently intact sand.

    The sand on the declined another brown clayey-sandy sediment with artefacts. The subsoil level ascended reddish-brown sands and loams, at some places with a below the S section, and above the granodiorite appeared not considerable amount of chipped industry, showed a sharp only sand but also breccia blocks.

    The large pieces of chert inclination towards south and a moderate one towards west. On the surface of hard detritus were some high section thus the actual extraction bottom was situated.

    In at the bottom of a depression. A very thick flakes with total weight of 74 kg. While in both industry, the most valuable collection is that from the Trench sections the chipped industry was not very numerous, with II, from the depth of — cm Profile 19a-b, Tab.

    The ratio of breccias increases again with mentioned stone barrier appeared in the W section huge advanced reduction, among non-cortical flakes they create numbers of artefacts, leaving together with granodiorites and about a third, among blades about a half of the amount.

    In explanation of this situation contributed a short unidirectional specimens Fig. N section, in which this thick deposit of chipped industry Most abundant are again the abruptly slopes down along a sandy-detritic loess deposit non-cortical flakes, blades sometimes of high quality, Fig.

    The subjacent layer rests on large At the 1st metre of the E section, in this subjacent In the south extension of a massive elongated extraction layer there is an intrusion sloping south where it creates a Pit II lies a separate depression, at the bottom of which the depression filled in with dark rusty sand.

    These are probably Trench II was opened, sided 1. The traces of the progress of a later extraction, which first took upper 25 cm consisted of sandy loess, and thereunder rested place in the older filling to cut it later in west direction aslant detritic sandy loam of dark colour.

    In this layer, from the down to an unknown depth. The age of this further extraction depth of 1 m downward, large unrounded granodiorite blocks phase was revealed by another Trench II laid aslant into began to appear, which later covered the whole bottom of the the N closure of the extraction pit.

    Most part of the filling is trench this filling, however, proceeded further downward. The Near the NW corner of the trench there was a spoil heap of situation can be interpreted as intentional ceremonial?

    From the depth of 90— cm we took to the height of 1 m above the bottom, and we held it out a sample of chipped industry that occurred here in a originally for an intact wall.

    However, it turned out these are distinct cluster. Remarkable is the 2. The accumulation fluently passes over into a thick numerous as waste. Cores as the largest artefacts had been stony deposit in the lower part of the E section containing an probably picked up from the surrounding workshops.

    The sandy loams with isolated stones, artefacts and scattered concentration of charcoal between the depths of 80 and charcoal.

    The deposit is water-impermeable and proceeds cm probably testifies to a similar process of closing the shaft down to an unknown depth.

    Directly inside the largest like in the previous case. In its N section, this filling can be supposed below the with cherts, and the granodiorite bedrock appears only in boulder heap at its base.

    Thereafter several episodes took form of boulders at the south edge. However, the original place with mass chipping of cherts, interleaved with reverse geological situation is considerably altered by extraction.

    One of the phases of the chipping procedure left The section Profile 21 shows the stratigraphic sequence behind a dense horizon of chipped industry as well as at the detected.

    In a trench 10 m long and 5 m deep we discovered base of the upper loessy deposit in the west section. The one- surrounding tertiary sand.

    The excavation continued further metre square No. From 1 m2 come pieces of depth of 2. The composition - culture fig.

    The of industry is standard with usual representation of main charcoals from the depth of cm were also dated into groups Tab.

    The lithic industry from predominate over the discoidal and flat ones 10 , numerous this trench Fig. Most flake cores show an irregular reduction sophisticated technological removals as preparational and sequence The only blade core is on Fig.

    Here appeared also the characteristic multicoloured NW of the spot height Finds could be acquired from the breccia chert, reduced sometimes in the same "paralevallois" upper 60 cm pcs of chipped industry with total weight manner as at the above mentioned site.

    From the depth of 0 to cm we counted altogether From the small space of a fifth of cubic metre come almost 4 cores with the weight of 62 kg, and 14 pcs — 57 kg of thousand 60 kg artefacts, in the range very similar to the flakes.

    About a half of this amount was concentrated in the previous collection Tab. Flakes approach depth of cm.

    At all levels the unidirectional flake cores sometimes close to Levalloisian forms Fig. There are more numerous and better mastered than the discoidal occurred 10 chipped-off crested blades and 23 different kind ones Fig.

    Debitage is very coarse, as if large pieces of Among the cores from the small Trench III outstands raw material were broken up utterly casually.

    Flakes are 44 a large breccia specimen with flat underside and arched times as numerous as cores, which probably means that upside Fig. As an evidence of a completely different technique, The northernmost extraction pits of the 4th mining area however, also a large prismatic core occurred with front ridge are located below the upper edge of the slope and never go adjustment weight 1.

    Another pits, lying as far as in the N part of the Up to now, no pottery fragments could be found in the adjacent plateau and on the other steep slope, belong already mining area IX, which is situated about m NE of the area to the mining Area V Map 7.

    To this field we paid our III Map 5. It is the northernmost mining field of the south attention mainly in when four trenches were opened group in the closure of an erosion valley created by a small there.

    All of them show a similar stratigraphy: In the axial Trench IX sands or hard loams rests a very light-coloured sandy loess above the current spring, the deposits of Holocene alluvial deposit containing sherds — in three cases from the Hallstatt sediments from the old spring horizon reach at some places Age, in one case from the beginning of the Urnfield Period.

    In higher-situated portions of the In the darker and thicker bottom part of the filling there was same trench their thickness is reduced to 90 cm, and they no pottery found whereby the charcoal pieces from the cover the granodiorite bedrock, which is furthermore covered Trench V were dated back to the Early Bronze Age.

    It ragged bedrock projections, but also large rounded boulders was the case of the Trench IX on the north directed surrounded for the most part by sterile sands.

    In a cellar-like towards S slope above the spring where numerous chipped space between the boulders probably emerged an industry occurred down to the depth of 60 cm in shovelled accumulation of cherts, which are represented in the intact gravel-sandy sediments.

    In the Even in the absence of any datable sherds, the chipped west section this seam is completely exploited and instead of industry from mining Areas III and IX shows such an it remained here loamy rusty sand with granodiorites and accordance that the contemporaneity of them cannot be pebbles of the KL chert, but with no chipped industry.

    Although the Krumlov, yielded so far no pottery material. It testifies namely to a field where mainly subrecent stone pits occur in the stony massive illimerisation process where below the humus appears subsoil.

    The interpretation of extraction in the Trench V is a bleached-out layer and thereunder a very compact thick very difficult, but also here one can follow up two main horizon enriched with clay, brown-coloured due to phases of filling up and furthermore maybe a trace of any precipitated iron and manganese.

    The upper bleached-out older activity Profile 25a-b. Some more remarkable clusters layer of 15—20 cm thickness reminded of grey dust loam and of chipped industry lay at the depth around cm with a contained clusters of indistinct chipped industry.

    Its lower piece of charcoal dated back to the Early Bronze Age: GrA- part was bordered by a thin rusty horizon and thereunder The In both corners at the bottom of the trench, in the E section closest relation to the above-mentioned date have of course appeared some finer, one shade lighter loams.

    In the E section the assemblages from its vicinity Tab. Already from the depth of showing traces of the splinter technique , the discoidal cores 60 cm downward charcoal began to appear, which then are represented almost as frequently as another flake cores.

    At the depth of — cm in the shapes, except for one unidirectional piece with centripetal quadrant 6D, there occurred two decayed charred logs or reduction.

    All of them are wedge-shaped in section Fig. Just as in previous shafts, this collection testifies to a in thickness Photo LXV , surrounded by disintegrating relatively advanced core reduction core remnants, non- fired granodiorite blocks and numerous charcoal pieces cortical flakes, but not very much waste.

    The first one of two On the opposite slope the mining Area VI is situated largest clusters of chipped artefacts occurred directly in this Map 7 where we already described extraction from the area, the other one a half metre lower down.

    At the bottom of beginning and end of the Eneolithic, and extensive activities the trench not shaft at the depth of 2.

    Most valuable is the accumulation of chipped predominant in all the other mining areas, could not yet be industry with a charcoal deposit GrA However, the shaft The discoidal Fig.

    Common traits of 39 is dated by many indications into the period under all collections from the shaft are the lack of minute waste, the investigation.

    In the industry from the whole fill discoidal low frequency of flakes, the absence of regular blades and cores predominate over those with non-flat reduction, which predominance of discoidal cores Tab.

    The first Trench VII was opened in the cut, all sections consisted of a very monotonous filling, less than 1 m N of the west end of an erosion furrow running most of the layers differed from each other only by the through the bottom of a valley in the east part of the mining amount of granodiorite blocks and chipped industry.

    The area Photo XIX. A rich deposit of macrolithic industry filling consists of granodioritic detritus with sharp-edged as created a cluster sized about 2 m2, situated 5—15 cm below well as rounded grains up to large boulders of rock, which the actual surface Photo 8.

    The largest industry there was also an increased amount of detritus and accumulation of big blocks is to be found in the N part of the coarse sand, probably deposited by water.

    The investigated W section, in the opposite section then at the 5th metre and area yielded artefacts with total weight of 34 kg Tab. The sterile subsoil occurred at 38, and 39, Fig.

    Comparing these data already 1—2 metres at the depth of 3 m. It was created by undoubtedly indicates that the small fraction in the cluster is somewhat unmoved boulders of the volcanic origin rock in size about underrepresented pcs in favour of a higher occurrence one metre, which probably rest on the compact bedrock of cores 83 pcs and debitage.

    The chert pebbles are not very frequent in the whole The most valuable information was offered by the Trench sediment filling, maybe because they were removed and VII, excavated on the slope about 40 m apart of the water splintered to pieces.

    The entire trench rested in of chert in this type of sediment, but then in the mining area the filling, and we could not detect the edge of the shaft I we ran across a seam of similar, very hard granodioritic anywhere.

    With regard to the size of the trench bottom this detritus, which contained numbers of the KL chert pebbles means that both the diameter and depth of the shaft must have and had been extracted in various periods.

    It is likely that been considerably exceeding 3 m. This could be proved only by extending the trench there is a distinct, as though artificially levelled plateau trench northward.

    Below them followed a multicoloured group of layer of surface humus and immediately thereunder down to strata consisting of Miocene sands with an extremely high the depth of a half metre.

    Review of discoidal cores, quite occurrence of small quartz pebbles, distinctly declined towards developed and with all reduction schemes, is shown on Tab.

    The transition between the subsoil and the strata with From among interesting shapes, two unifacial cores with finds is fuzzy.

    Chipped industry was not very abundant, which centripetal reduction Tab. Although and 38 indicate a mastered laminar core reduction Fig. Another striking of the mining area II, below a sort of levelled plateau there is trait is the microlithic character of the assemblage.

    The ratio of a group of boulders with flat upsides. Sediments rested on a flat predominate over the flake cores.

    We also recorded a single scorched bedrock at the depth of 0—60 cm, covered with ca blade Fig. Seven years later it was followed by another the deposition of the strata with finds, however, regarding the longer Trench V, described in the text part dealing with the very moderate declination and small height of the slope above Early Bronze Age.

    It is dated by a group of sherds and a completely absent here, cf. The irregular character of Bronze Age GrA However, the industry is caused by the use of raw material with many associated ceramics Fig.

    The fissures, holes, petrosilexes, small quartz crystals, and with typical blades are missing, as well as the formal tools Tab. The silicite matrix is very coarse-grained 46, and Due to the excavation method used, the advanced as well.

    From the only one square metre evaluated emerged workshop collection is probably a little depleted of small over 7 thousand artefacts Tab. Among cores predominate the broken remnants and The extraction activity dating from the Hallstatt Period could fragments, followed by initialised pieces.

    Blades are basically absent late period is based on the interplay of four indications: With the one single exception depicted, these shafts from earlier periods this is most obvious on lower blades neither had been used as tool blanks.

    Down to the depth of 1. Further down the the preceding two criteria are not fulfilled; often we must shaft broke through variously coloured and with different content ourselves with the fact that the most thickenss of sand layers, in some places with detritus, but with characteristic traits of other periods are not present.

    At the very bottom in the depth of about The first and the subsidiary fourth condition will be cm and below, there were fine yellow sands without any fulfilled in all of the situations mentioned above, the second stones.

    Similarly as the shallow shaft 2, this trench apparently and third condition only in a few of them. The age of the late did not ran either across the seam with cherts.

    In effect it is shafts could not be proved in a single case but neither undoubtedly connected with the absence of the usual disproved by a radiometric date.

    However, even in an ideal enlargement at the bottom as well as the funnel-shaped mouth case, when all the criteria quoted would be fulfilled, we will of the shaft.

    That feature created a moderate oval, which obtain only a terminus ante quem, because the considerably slightly exceeded 1 m in the E- i.

    At the of a shaft when immediately filled up. We must further very bottom there was a very fine yellow sand containing a consider the fact that the younger the situation the higher is large amount of chipped industry and numerous sherds of the danger of contamination of finds i.

    There was namely determination by M. Particular shafts were then dated to the Early Eneolithic and The accumulation at the bottom was taken out completely, indirectly also to the Early Bronze Age.

    Initialised cores are a little more abundant brown sands with detritus at the border between the 9th and 50 pcs than the exploited cores 44 pcs , but over both 10th metre in the west section Profile 28, Photo XX and these groups predominate the cores under reduction, among LXIX.

    Frequent is the reduction have been reaching down to a considerable depth, because a on the ventral side of thick flakes 10 pcs, Fig.

    At the depth of — cm in the N section occurred concavity of knapping surfaces Fig. The flake types an inexhaustible amount of chipped industry together with with regard to cortex are in balance all together Tab.

    Blades are basically missing, a blade core occurred only and even larger and strongly rounded granodiorite pebbles.

    Nine ventrally thinned flakes are Above and below the depth quoted, the chipped industry associated with flat cores on flakes. The collection represents suddenly vanished.

    From the thick accumulation only a a balanced product of an intensive chipping activity. The balanced sample was taken out Tab.

    Surprising is a relatively low frequency of flakes and the bottom of the shaft quite intentionally, and not waste and, on the contrary, a large number of cores, mainly accidentally during the filling up, so it is an intentional those that were reduced.

    Among the reduced cores deposition. Another part of the same production probably got predominate the unidirectional forms. The frequency of flakes to the depth of 3 m into the filling of the Shaft No.

    It is probably the remnant of a The next Shaft No. Below the brown, at the structure and technology the collection exactly copies the base more black humous delluvial deposit with graphite assemblage from the bottom of the neighbouring Shaft No.

    The unilateral that one filling in the mouth of the shaft 5. Down to the depth of 4. From among 26 flat cores, 6 are on flakes m we lowered the surface level by a quadratic excavation, Tab.

    Among sparsely represented flakes predominate further down the shaft became wider, and for static reasons the semi-cortical items; blades are completely missing Tab.

    The 51 and The middle of the been undoubtedly situated in the place of a remarkable 9th shaft, however, lies about 75 cm more eastward than the enlargement of the shaft.

    A hand test pit into the E section shaft 8 so that it distinctly runs into the ground plan of the indeed detected after 45 cm a hard detritic sediment with Shaft 10, where it ends with a flat bottom at the depth of pebbles of the KL chert and granodiorite.

    A test pit into the cm. It is possible that the test pit the shaft. In all samples, as standard, just as it was the case with the Shaft No.

    Down to the upper part of the enlargement at the depth the stability of many features across all depths and backfill of 4. This prehistoric test pit neither detected a bed of without stones, with two accumulations of chipped industry cherts, at least because it proceeded mostly through an old at the depths of — cm and — cm.

    Most probably only some larger artefacts from the the Shaft No. Its mouth appears fuzzy in form of yellow nearby workshop were thrown in.

    At the depths of 4. The Shaft 11 then ended with a horizontal, directly below a black-brown delluvial deposit with graphite slightly extended bottom at the depth of almost 6 m in a layer sherds, and breaks through the whole filling of the Late of fine rusty sand.

    At the bottom again appeared a distinct Lengyel Shaft No. The profile of the Shaft 8 could be detected on sherds and charcoal. According to a borehole into the W wall the E and W section, which are situated about 70 cm away at the depth of 2.

    However, from the documentation is clear deep as 2 m below its bottom, on the bedrock , and no that the shaft was oval in plan, with the long axis of less than artefacts occurred in the filling as well.

    Their concentration at 1 m parallel to contour lines whereby the length of its fall-line the very bottom of the resultless test pit is herewith axis in N-S direction can be only estimated — on the marginal undoubtedly intentional.

    In contrast to another deposits it sections it seemed to be unrealistically small, and in between shows, as standard, a predominance of flakes and waste over it hardly exceeded 80 cm.

    At the depth of cm occurred cores Tab. In two places somewhat higher up, the Shaft 8 In all the three Shafts 8, 9, 11 coming out of the upper disturbed towards south the Shaft No.

    The very often only 1 dominant final scar. Unlike the unidirectional bottom with a dense accumulation of chipped industry was cores and sporadic cores with changed orientation, the pieces mantled with a deposit of brown-grey loam.

    Just as the Shaft with two opposite platforms are almost missing and blades 5, also this shaft had not reach the seam with cherts, and and blade cores are basically missing as well.

    The situation where later extraction disturbs a Late Except the bottom, there were no artefacts found in the Lengyel shaft occurs again in the Trench VI In the 1 m wide E section the filling of the Shaft 16 deeper the backfills of both phases of the Shaft 13 widened took up the whole width, and only at a depth of 2.

    At the bottom of the pieces of hornstone. Except the massive concentration at the appeared large chert pebbles sized up to 20 cm, and even bottom there were basically no artefacts found.

    Flakes and larger pieces of granodiorite. Both of the shafts proceeded waste predominate over cores; there occur many small halved further down, but narrowed to less than one metre.

    From the and tested pebbles. It is pieces with serrated flaking surface. Thus, the course of the shaft 13B was strongly Another Shaft No.

    Above this lowest shaft one could observe preserved in the W and S part. At the depth of 2. Its mouth therefore appears in the W section only preserved Shaft 13 has an about 1.

    The probably intact sand occurs in the which it becomes considerably extended in the east section. N section as deep as 5.

    On this granodiorite bedrock at the depth of 6. In extension at the bottom can be estimated to less than one the opposite W wall both of the undercuttings merged.

    The extracted seam was undoubtedly represented by minimum diameter of the Shaft 13A and 13B in subjacent gravel sands on the bedrock, on which accumulated chert sterile sands probably only enabled the passability of original pebbles can be found.

    A special composition can higher-situated seam inside the detritic sand. From a thick be observed only in one scanty sample from the depth of deposit of chipped industry in the north undercutting we have — cm, because it yielded eight pieces of tested raw taken out 6 plastic bags full of artefacts Photo LXXXIV.

    With the exception of tested observe a strongly detritic deposit. Below a metre of loamy-sandy delluvial deposits reached less or equal to 45 cm away.

    Among two dozens of flakes and Shaft 13B, which is penetrated by the Shaft 13A. In a waste from the bottom there are absolutely no cores Tab.

    Among 28 cores weighing 22 kg slightly predominate reduced A far more interesting situation loomed in the lower part pieces with prevailing flat reduction.

    Among these, the of the trench. At the depth of cm, in a very fine sharply unifacial cores Fig. Further classification is shown which in the east part contained numerous artefacts and on Tab.

    The most characteristic trait is represented by became a shade darker colour, but without any distinctive pieces of cubic scheme with several extraction surfaces border.

    Blades are still sparse detected. In contrast to the finds from shafts, The slope below the megalith is thus indeed pervaded most of the cores end in form of splinters, i.

    The oldest shafts from the turn between materials occurred. However, this explanation is of course Neolithic and Eneolithic are disturbed by narrower shafts absurd in a situation where huge amounts of chipped raw from the Early Iron Age, among which are distinguishable material were left in shafts and surface heaps.

    The pit dweller two generations: The bottom the shafts. It is also possible that the very late-dated dwelling part of the spoil heap is dated to the Late LgK, the upper part is yet a little later than the extraction heyday in the shafts.

    In the pit penetrate the spoil heaps from previous shafts. A few of dwelling are also more numerous bifacial flat cores, but not a these late Shafts 5, 13 and 16 yielded isolated sherds of the large amount of blade cores or blades at all.

    Chipped industry occurs here only in reduction is proved by a larger number of exploited cores, but certain deposits, but in a very large amount, which testifies to balanced percentages of flakes from particular production some one-shot chipping actions separated by longer time span stages are corresponding to the collections from shafts — in backfills of the Early Bronze Age extraction pits, chipped where is even higher volume of partial assemblages with industry is always scattered more regularly.

    This can be explained by a The brown to black-brown humous loams above the smaller size of available raw material than is in the shafts.

    The densest cluster was directly from local shafts, and its production was independent found inside the superimposed layers above the Shaft 7 in the from the works in the mining area.

    The analysis by A. Majer showed that these All of the pits on the opposite slope and at the hilltop in deluvial deposits are considerably enriched with phosphorus the 5th mining area probably belong to the Early Bronze Age, probably from dung , which is, on the contrary, absent at the but the upper portion of their backfill is always created by hilltop above.

    In the mining Area VI, the ceramics. Although never forming an entire vessel, the humous layer with ceramic sherds was undoubtedly washed sherds always lie close together — as if they were deposited down from the hilltop onto the slope.

    Radiometrical date from one of numerous and a considerable part of the industry may come from older pieces of charred wood GrA The date, even if of any greater importance.

    Anyway, the prehistory of this old inconsiderable age anthracological analysis by V. Besides the textile which refers to a cluster of stones and cinder in the upper part production, however, also a surprisingly well-developed of the backfill of an older mining Shaft II Photo 18, Tab.

    The 53, 60, and In the superimposed layers above a cluster of standardly predominating over cores, and waste is yet more Bronze Age or Hallstatt Age pottery in the Pit V one abundant.

    The cores are mostly exploited or fragmentary, but could find two sherds from the Roman Period Photo never showing traces of the splinter technique.

    A more frequent type than the common unidirectional cores Second life of older shafts Fig. The number of across a distinctive extraction pit in the north part of the flakes increases with advanced reduction, i.

    Below a thin humus layer was a are non-cortical, and those made of breccias usually have light ochre sandy loess deposit, where the first larger stones prepared platforms.

    Together with a decrease in chipped industry also the Fig. Into the shaft thus must have got the inventory of any These calcinated bones rested usually below the sherds former workshop, which can be found in huge numbers in all whereby none of the sherd clusters created an entire vessel; it surrounding spoil heaps.

    However, the high percentage of seems that several distinct shapes e. Pottery, with a few exceptions e. In any case we would await mentioned fragment , is quite hoary.

    At the depth of 93 cm, some more displays of the splinter technique. Of a similar and 10 cm to the north of the largest cluster of sherds with character is also the sample from the depression bottom.

    However, The upper 80 cm consisted of a sandy loess deposit with charcoal and charred bones can be found also deeper down. At the depth of cm again occurred large stones and At the depth of 75 cm the tops of large granodiorite pieces between them, together with charcoal, we have found a 36 began to appear, which then at the depth of 90 to cm and 9 mm long and 3 mm thick fragment of a bronze pin, began to create an almost continuous backfill with many unfortunately without head Photo CXXI.

    The charcoal charcoal pieces, chert pebbles and chipped artefacts. From pieces near the pin seemed to be forming some structure, i. At the tissue or textile, but they stayed not preserved in entirety.

    At depth of 80 cm this accumulation appeared as if it were round the depth of cm in a brown-grey loose sediment were in plan Photo At the same time the backfill became numerous chipped artefacts, chert pebbles and granodiorite more loamy and brown-coloured.

    Its reddish hue was pieces. Some of them reached up to 40 cm in size. Ten cm certainly related with areas of charcoal and ashes, hereby lower the industry is on the wane in favour of smaller chert documenting the presence of fire directly in the half filled pebbles, and at the same time a third thick deposit of shaft, or in its re-excavated backfill.

    The functionally balanced granodiorite boulders arises containing small clusters of sample of workshop production displays some traits typical of charcoal and an isolated bone, all of that resting on a layer of the Early Bronze Age Tab.

    In that wet loam. The above-mentioned muddy With similar association of extraordinary accumulations filling of 20—30 cm in thickness lies on a whitish clay of charcoal, stones and discoidal industry in the upper parts sediment penetrating an older backfill.

    The question is here of backfills of older shafts we still met in several other cases, the origin of the whitish clay sediment at the bottom — maybe while in some of them the industry was less numerous or it settled in a natural way, but it is also possible that it is a showed a different character.

    The most remarkable example is man-caused deposit to make the pit hold back the water the the excavation Trench II at the bottom of a distinct same property has, however, also the lower part of the Early extraction pit 45 m south of the Trench II-9 Profile 39c.

    The uppermost one metre of the backfill The representation of breccias is shown on Tab. Elongated form of three of KL chert smaller or equal to fist-size.

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